Thriving as a PhD Student

This book contains the authors personal experiences of undertaking a science PhD (laboratory-based) in a university institution. Although no experience is the same, this book aims to create a general understanding of what a science PhD actually entails, including what to expect in the dreaded viva. So whether you are thinking of doing a PhD yourself or are just curious about what it’s really like, this book is for you. The book has been split into different sections, each dealing with a different aspect of doing a PhD.  The author has tried to structure this book in such a way that it is not written in strict chronological order, whilst minimising the occurrence of overlap between sections as much as possible. In this way, each section should be able to be read individually if there is one specific aspect you particularly want to know about, meaning you may wish to skip straight to that part.


However, the author discusses her PhD project section by section, and therefore to gain maximum enjoyment, we would recommend starting from the beginning. Additionally, if you are thinking of doing a PhD, you may also wish to seek other opinions, as each person will have a different experience of what it was like for them. In the meantime, read on for a very honest and open account of the studies that shaped almost four years of the authors life.


  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • File Size: 175 KB
  • Publisher: Honnao (6 Jun 2013)
  • Sold by: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Language: English
  • ASIN: B00D94D0L0

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How Your Body Solves The Problem of Pregnancy

  • Do you know the challenge your immune system has to overcome during pregnancy?
  • Do you want to know how your baby is under constant threat from your immune system?
  • Do you want to find out how truly amazing your immune system really is?

Then look no further!


This short book begins by explaining the problem faced by your immune system during your pregnancy, before discussing a number of possible solutions, including the effect pregnancy hormones may have on your immune cells.

Using simple language with no confusing scientific or medical terms, you can understand how your immune system copes with the presence of foreign molecules throughout your pregnancy without attacking your baby. Read on to discover what goes on in your body during pregnancy ‘underneath the surface’.

Author:  Dr Melissa Fletcher
Pregnancy – what’s the problem?
Foetal food – a risky business
Solutions to the problem of pregnancy
Solution 1 – The ever-changing face of MHC molecules
Solution 2 – Immune messengers and how they help during pregnancy
Solution 3 – Specialised cells of the immune system during pregnancy
Solution 4 – Hormones during pregnancy and the immune system
Other undiscovered mechanisms?

Product details

  • Format: Kindle Edition
  • File Size: 114 KB
  • Publisher: Honnao (21 Jan 2013)
  • Sold by: Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Language: English
  • ASIN: B00B4G5MNO

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International Forum for Disaster Victim Identification

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Collection and preservation of biological material for disaster victim identification.

The utility of DNA profiling in human identification.

Identity vs identification in the 21st Century: The forensic use of jewellery in disaster victim identification.

Disaster victim identification in a theatre of operations.

Lessons learnt during the Christchurch earthquake.

Mass Disaster, Post Mortem Identification Techniques and Procedures.

Management of DVI scene

Preservation of life

Security of both the site and the evidence.

Relative Liaison Centres (RLC).

Means of identification and ante-mortem data.





  • File Size: 194 KB
  • Publisher: Honnao (January 8, 2013)
  • Sold by: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.
  • Language: English



Allergy in a Nut Shell

Although allergy to food is a common problem and affects about 1 in 10 infants in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, there is still quite a bit of confusion about what the term allergy means, how we get allergic to food and what we can do to prevent it occurring.

The aim of this short book is to explain the basic concepts of food allergy, so that everyone can understand how it occurs, why our body reacts when we have an allergy and discusses some of the advice given for how we can help ourselves and our children to prevent it occurring.

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Table of Contents


Let’s be clear

Food allergy is not

Food allergy is

There are two major types of food allergy

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions

What determines if food allergy is severe?

Primary allergy

Secondary allergy

Why do people get food allergy?


Irregular early food exposures

Late food exposures

Skin damage which might cause food allergy

The type bugs that live in the stomach may determine whether there is food allergy

Why is food allergy more common today?

The Hygiene Hypothesis

Changes in diet and nutrition

Not all food cause allergies

Types of food that cause allergy in UK and US children

Types of food that cause allergy in UK and US adults

How to not develop allergy to food

Avoidance of common food allergens during pregnancy, breastfeeding and youth

Early introduction of common food allergens such as peanut or egg to a child’s diet

Vitamin D

Oily fish

Breast feeding



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ASIN: B0095DCE52

kindle-new-Thought for Food e-cover

Thought For Food

There is such an enormous amount of information about food available to the general public that it would be impossible to summarise or discuss its significance in one book. Instead this book looks at contemporary food issues starting with how modern food is produced/manufactured, then discussing what we should be eating and why we are easting it and ending with what the food does to us once we have consumed it.

Each Chapter is written by an expert in the subject and topics include the origins and progress of scientifically moderated food, how some germs that we eat will keep us healthy, whereas others will kill us, the origins of food allergy, what we should be feeding our children and how our emotions control our eating habits

This is not a book that that will tell you how to live your life or how to eat healthily.

There are no diets or anti-allergy plans.

What we are aiming to do is ask you to take a moment out of your day to give some thought for food you are eating and hopefully provide you with some food for thought. …..

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People, food, health, and technologies               

PART I Food and culture

People and food

Attitudes to food

Early technology and food

Food and language

PART II Winning food

People evolved as hunter-gatherers

Early plant processing technologies and biotechnologies

Hunter-gatherers manage and manipulate plants and animals

The remarkable Kumeyaay people

PART III Creating food

The farming revolution

The creation of domesticated species

Agriculture only developed in a few places and very few plants or animals were ever domesticated

Farming, lifestyles, and human health

PART IV Managing and improving food creation

Crop management

Empirical genetic manipulation for crop improvement

Biotechnologies, ancient and modern

Biotechnology and the 20th century population explosion

PART V Genetic engineering and other 21st century technologies

Biotechnologies for the 21st century – it’s not all about GM!

The importance of context and provenance for biotechnologies

Why were GM crops rejected in Europe?

GM crops: consumer reaction and global impact

Has the impact of GM technology been exaggerated?

Future perspectives



About the Author:  Professor Denis Murphy, BA (Hons), DPhil, FSB

Probiotics and beneficial gut microbes

Introducing probiotics

Bacteria within us

Contribution of gut bacteria to human health

Gut microbes and host nutrition

Beneficial bacteria in food?  Since the days of the cavemen

Beneficial bacteria – discovered, then nearly forgotten… and re-discovered

Health benefits of probiotics – Digestive health

The use of probiotics to reduce or avoid the side-effects of antibiotic treatments

Irritable bowel syndrome

Digestion of food

Inflammatory bowel diseases

Reduction of gut pathogens

Health benefits of probiotics – Immune health

Are all probiotics equal?

Safety of probiotics

Concluding remarks

About the Author:  Dr Sampo Lahtinen, PhD

Food Poisoning in the United Kingdom at the Start of the Twenty first Century

What is Food Poisoning?

Food Poisoning in the UK

The Key Food Safety Challenges


Listeria monocytogenes




Clostridium Perfringens

Top Tips for Avoiding Food Poisoning and Staying Healthy

Finding out more about food poisoning


About the Author:  Dr Christopher Gooding, BSc, PhD

You can wear pink socks to the party, but you can’t bring pink wafers!

Once upon a time

Diet, nutrition and behaviour

School food standards – making the right choice the easy choice?

Packed lunches

Be Label Aware!

The Stats

Good practice in a secondary schools

Moving on

Big Brother

The problem with common sense

What’s it got to do with me?

It’s nothing like smoking! Or “Do as I say, not as I do”

Happily ever after

About the Author:  Jo Smith

Eating the emotion

How we use food to change our mood


In the beginning… we are born hungry, hungry for love, hungry for food



Using a framework to understand emotional eating

Parent ego-state

Adult ego-state

Child ego-state

How do we decide to use food to soothe ourselves?

Some common patterns

What initiates and perpetuates emotional eating?

Why diets alone don’t work

What is the alternative to dieting?

So how can we stop eating our emotions?

Seeking professional help



About the Authors:  Ayse Banbridge and Sonia Di Gennaro

Factors affecting the development of food allergy

What is food allergy?

What illnesses does food allergy cause?

Is food allergy more common than it used to be, or do we just recognise it more often?

If food allergy is getting more common, do we know why this is happening?

Do we know why food allergy occurs in the first place?

OK – well how does our body decide whether or not to make an allergic response to a food that we eat then?

And what sort of things might stop this from working properly?

i. A disturbed gut lining

ii. A highly allergic immune system

iii. Abnormal early food exposures

iv. More complex interactions between the environment and our genetic makeup

So when food allergy does happen, what is the body reacting to?

What determines whether an allergic reaction will be severe and life threatening or not?

So what should I do to prevent my child from developing food allergy

a. Avoidance of common food allergens

b. Early introduction of common food allergens such as peanut or egg to a child’s diet

c. Vitamin supplements

d. Oily fish

e. Probiotics

f. Breast feeding

g. Skin care

h. Other ways of preventing allergy


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Spontaneous (1)

Spontaneous models of human disease

Proceedings from the February 2nd 2007 meeting in London, UK

“The main goal of this meeting was to get together clinical and basic immunologists trying to gather insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases and immunotherapy. Due to the limitations of the human system, these investigations often rely on the use of animal models developing spontaneous diseases. In this meeting we evaluated the pros and cons of some of the most used and valuable animal models of disease and some new models, which will open new therapeutic ways to treat human diseases”.  Dr Sonia Quaratino, Reader in Immunology, Cancer Research UK Clinical Centre, University of Southampton

This meeting was chaired by:   Dr Sonia Quaratino, Reader in Immunology, Cancer Research UK Clinical Centre, University of Southampton


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Table of Contents



Why use spontaneous models of human disease?

Biological processes in complex organisms, especially mammals, have many features in common

Many pathological processes in humans are very complex, and as populations are outbred

Some ‘artificial’ models provide information about ‘natural’ regulatory mechanisms for potential therapeutic use

A novel humanized animal model of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis


Understanding the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis Through Experimental Models

Humanized, spontaneous transgenic models of MS – immunology, imaging and therapeutics

Spontaneous And Induced Models Of Rheumatoid Arthritis


Models of arthritis induced by immunization

Adjuvant arthritis

Antigen-induced arthritis

Streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis

Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)

Proteoglycan-induced arthritis

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-induced arthritis

Spontaneous arthritis in transgenic strains of mice

hTNF transgenic mice

hIL-1a transgenic mice

The KRN model of arthritis


A Mouse Model For Celiac Disease


The immunopathogenic  mechanisms in Celiac Disease

In vivo models of intestinal gluten sensitivity

Recent advances


The myodystrophy mouse; providing insights into the glycobiology of muscular dystrophy

What have we learned from spontaneous animal models of muscular dystrophy

Mouse Models of Arteriosclerosis



Arterial injury

Vein graft atherosclerosis

Transplant arteriosclerosis





Disease Models by Leukocyte-specific mutagenesis in Mice



Csk-deficiency in granulocytes leads to acute inflammatory disease

B cell specific inactivation of the TGF-b receptor causes IgA deficiency, B cell hyperplasia and hyper-g-globulinaemia

Tracking homeostatic pathways and mediators in primary cells


The Immunological Disease Continuum- Implications for animal models


NO news is good news – Detection, Measurement and Quantification of Nitric Oxide: Tools for Nitric Oxide Research

Proceedings from the 23rd March 2007 meeting in Hertfordshire, UK

“Nitric oxide (NO), generated by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays a key role in a diverse range of physiological and pathophysiological conditions within the cardiovascular, immune, reproductive and nervous systems. Since NO is a small, diffusible, highly reactive free radical with a short half-life, and is present in low concentrations, real-time detection of NO is extremely difficult. This meeting examined methods used to detect and visualise NO-producing cells. Furthermore, direct and indirect techniques used to measure NO were examined, including among others, the measurement of NOS enzymatic activity, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and NO-sensitive electrodes. Finally, tools that facilitate NO research, such as NOS inhibitors were examined”.  Meeting’s Chair: Dr Nicholas Warrick – University of Oxford


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Table of Contents






Quantification of Blood and Tissue NO Metabolites by Gas Phase Chemiluminescence: a Guide to NO Man’s Land

  • Introduction
  • Vascular Nitric Oxide Metabolism
  • Methods for Metabolite Measurement
  • Principle of Chemiluminescence
  • Methods of Sample Preparation
  • Controversy
  • Practicalities
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References

Radiochemical HPLC measurement of nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) activity in vascular tissue

EPR-based measurement of reactive nitrogen intermediates in human inflammatory diseases

Nitric oxide sensors and their biomedical applications

Understanding NO synthase inhibition; potency, selectivity and implications for their pharmacology

  • References

Endogenously occurring inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase

  • Abstract
  • Methylated arginines as NOS inhibitors
  • Measuring ADMA
  • Conditions in which ADMA is elevated
  • Arginine methylation
  • Regulation of ADMA
  • Could ADMA be causative in cardiovascular pathologies?

Evaluating endothelial function in humans: From bench to bedside

Nitric oxide synthase inhibition and renal injury

  • References

Quantification of enzyme independent stores of nitric oxide in human skin

  • References



NO quantification in abnormal and manipulated red blood cells

  • References

Application of NO detection using Fe(DETC) spin trap and ESR spectroscopy in pharmacological research

  • Halogenated volatile anestherics (HVA)
  • Flavonoids. Baicalein and luteolin
  • TO-85 and TO-133
  • Mildronate
  • References

Hypoxia-induced regulation of nitric oxide synthase in cardiac endothelial cells and myocytes

  • Methods
  • Results
  • Conclusions

Nitrite regulation of energy expenditure in man

Nitric oxide inhibits cellular lipid and protein synthesis without energy depletion: a process of chronic diseases due to nitrosothiols

NOx concentrations in human brain extracellular fluid and their relationship with energy metabolism: a pilot microdialysis study in acute brain injury

  • Background and aims
  • Patients and methods
  • Results
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Maintaining Stem Cells and the Regulation of Their Differentiation

Proceedings from the 27th April 2007 meeting at The BioPark Hertfordshire, UK

“Much of the promise of stem cell biology and tissue engineering depends on the ability to maintain and differentiate cells into tissues in a robust and reproducible manner. We are only just at the beginning of understanding how to control cell growth in vitro and produce cell types that are of value to basic research, pharmaceutical development and potential therapeutic applications. This meeting is designed to bring together experts in the field to share their experiences of developing innovative ways to create a more realistic environment for cell growth and differentiation. There are many physical factors that are often taken for granted during the culture of cells, including the topography and nature of the substrate, oxygen tension, temperature, etc. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous factors to the culture medium and the development of co-culture models are of importance to more closely mimic the conditions cells experience in vivo. The aim of this symposium was to therefore recognise that the control of cell differentiation requires an in-depth understanding of the growth conditions and signals cells require in order to differentiate in a particular manner. This was exemplified by a carefully selected panel of speakers who shared their experiences of controlling cell growth and differentiation using a range of alternative approaches”. Dr Stefan Przyborski, School of Biological and Biomedical Science, Durham University

This meeting was chaired by Dr Stefan Przyborski, School of Biological and Biomedical Science, Durham University


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 Table of Contents


Development of Enabling Technology to Control Cell Growth and Function In Vitro

Haematopoietic differentiation of embryonic stem cells is influenced by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment.

  • Abstract.
  • Introduction.
  • Results and Discussion.
  • Acknowledgements.
  • References.

Effects of the microenvironment on ES cell differentiation

Metabolic Profiling Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • References

Human CB-CD.133+ Cells Injected To Nod-Scid Mice Made Deaf After Ototoxic Treatment Provide Conditions For The Resumption Of The Inner Ear Structure

BD MatrigelTM – An Ideal Surface for Maintaining Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Effect of culture temperature on mesenchymal stem cell viability and potency

Inhibition of neuritogenesis by adult neuroprogenitors grown on MAG-coated substrates

The Power of Guava Technologies

  • Typical Stem Cell Viability Test Report


Poster Presentations

Adult  Human  Dental Pulp Stem  Cells (DPSC): Preliminary Observations  For Selecting And Conditioning  Dpsc  According  Osteogenic Aims

Changes in Cell Deformability as a Novel Differentiation Marker




Your Immune System and You

When you read articles on how to boost your immune system, do you wonder what it is going on behind the scenes – what you are actually boosting?

• What does your immune system actually do and how does it do it?
• Why should you boost your immune system?

Using non-scientific and non-medical terms, this simple, interesting, jargon-free book explains:-

How your immune system protects you, what happens when the immune system goes wrong and simple (cost-free) ways to help your body fight infections.

Immune diseases such as allergy and diabetes, as well as organ transplantation and cancer, are discussed, plus controversial treatments such as homeopathy.

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Table of Contents



How great your immune system is

  • Natural Surveillance.
  • The Immune System talks to itself.
  • Making Memories.
  • Time to kill
  • How antibodies work.

When the immune system goes wrong.

  • Allergy.
  • What causes the allergy symptoms.
  • Autoimmunity.
  • Transplantation.
  • Preventing rejection.
  • The problems with a bone marrow transplant.

The Immune system and cancer.

  • Cancer therapy effects the immune system drastically.

Boosting the immune system..

  • Don’t worry, be happy.
  • Exercise.
  • Diet.
  • Undernourished people.
  • Excessive food intake.
  • Good Bacteria.
  • Vaccinations.
  • Homeopathy.
  • Be a bit dirty!


This book is part of the Simple explanations for complicated things series which has a Facebook  fan page at

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